RE: While we are digging up the past.....
January 21, 2013, 12:49:35
Rooitwit the post above is about could a simple cell evolve. Its not abou time. The facts are clear it couldnt possibly have evolved.
So who made it.
Next I process to demolish ou rooitwits last remaining hope and that is that matter is eternal. Nobody created matter according to rooitwit as it has always exisyed. Unfortunately modern science has turned its back on that one as well. Hahaahahahhahahahahahahaha
The end of rooitwits last hope - crash goes the ocillating universe theory. Read this rooitiwt and ge tup to speed.
MODERN ATTEMPTS TO DEFEND AN ETERNAL UNIVERSE:
THE STEADY STATE AND OSCILLATING UNIVERSE THEORIES
One theory that was offered in an attempt to establish the eternality of the Universe was the Steady State model, propagated by Sir Fred Hoyle and his colleagues. Even before they offered this unusual theory, however, scientific evidence had been discovered which indicated that the Universe was expanding. Hoyle set forth the Steady State model to: (a) erase any possibility of a beginning; (b) bolster the idea of an eternal Universe; and (c) explain why the Universe was expanding. His idea was that at certain points in the Universe (which he called “irtrons”), matter was being created spontaneously from nothing. Since this new matter had to “go” somewhere, and since two objects cannot occupy the same space at the same time, it pushed the already-existing matter further into distant space. Dr. Hoyle asserted that this process of matter continually being created (the idea even came to be known as the “continuous creation” theory) avoided any beginning or ending, and simultaneously accounted for the expansion of the Universe.
For a time, Hoyle’s Steady State hypothesis was quite popular. Eventually, however, it was discarded for a number of reasons. Cosmologist John Barrow has suggested that the Steady State theory proposed by Hoyle and his colleagues sprang “...from a belief that the universe did not have a beginning.... The specific theory they proposed fell into conflict with observation long ago...” (1991, p. 46). Indeed, the Steady State theory did fall into “conflict with observation” for a number of reasons. First, empirical observations no longer fit the model (see Gribbin, 1986). Second, new theoretical concepts being proposed were at odds with the Steady State model. And third, it violated the First Law of Thermodynamics, which states that neither matter nor energy can be created or destroyed in nature. Jastrow commented on this last point when he wrote:
But the creation of matter out of nothing would violate a cherished concept in science—the principle of the conservation of matter and energy—which states that matter and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Matter can be converted into energy, and vice versa, but the total amount of all matter and energy in the Universe must remain unchanged forever. It is difficult to accept a theory that violates such a firmly established scientific fact. Yet the proposal for the creation of matter out of nothing possesses a strong appeal to the scientist, since it permits him to contemplate a Universe without beginning and without end (1977, p. 32).
The Steady State model, with its creation of matter from nothing, could not be reconciled with this basic law of science, and thus was abandoned.
Slowly but surely, the Big Bang model of the origin of the Universe replaced the Steady State theory. It postulated that all the matter/energy in the observable Universe was condensed into a particle much smaller than a single proton (the famous “cosmic egg,” or “ylem” as it frequently is called). The Big Bang model, however, suffered from at least two major problems. First, it required that whatever made up the “cosmic egg” be eternal—a concept clearly at odds with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. John Gribbin, a highly regarded evolutionary cosmologist, voiced the opinion of many when he wrote: “The biggest problem with the Big Bang theory of the origin of the Universe is philosophical—perhaps even theological—what was there before the bang?” (1976, pp. 15-16).
Second, the expansion of the Universe could not go on forever; it had to end somewhere. These problems suggested to evolutionists that they were living in a Universe that had a beginning, and that would have an ending. Robert Jastrow addressed both of these points: “And concurrently there was a great deal of discussion about the fact that the second law of thermodynamics, applied to the Cosmos, indicates the Universe is running down like a clock. If it is running down, there must have been a time when it was fully wound up” (1978, pp 48-49). It was apparent that matter could not be eternal, because, as everyone knows, eternal things do not run down. Furthermore, there was going to be an end at some point in the future. And eternal entities do not have either beginnings or endings.
In a desperate effort to avoid any vestige of a beginning or any hint of an ending, evolutionists invented the Oscillating Universe model (also known as the Big Bang/Big Crunch model, the Expansion/Collapse model, etc.). Dr. Gribbin suggested that “...the best way round this initial difficulty is provided by a model in which the Universe expands from a singularity, collapses back again, and repeats the cycle indefinitely” (1976, pp. 15-16).
That is to say, there was a Big Bang; but there also will be a Big Crunch, at which time the matter of the Universe will collapse back onto itself. There will be a “bounce,” followed by another Big Bang, which will be followed by another Big Crunch, and this process will be repeated ad infinitum. In the Big Bang model, there is a permanent end; not so in the Oscillating Universe model, as Dr. Jastrow explained:
But many astronomers reject this picture of a dying Universe. They believe that the expansion of the Universe will not continue forever because gravity, pulling back on the outward-moving galaxies, must slow their retreat. If the pull of gravity is sufficiently strong, it may bring the expansion to a halt at some point in the future.
What will happen then? The answer is the crux of this theory. The elements of the Universe, held in a balance between the outward momentum of the primordial explosion and the inward force of gravity, stand momentarily at rest; but after the briefest instant, always drawn together by gravity, they commence to move toward one another. Slowly at first, and then with increasing momentum, the Universe collapses under the relentless pull of gravity. Soon the galaxies of the Cosmos rush toward one another with an inward movement as violent as the outward movement of their expansion when the Universe exploded earlier. After a sufficient time, they come into contact; their gases mix; their atoms are heated by compression; and the Universe returns to the heat and chaos from which it emerged many billions of years ago (1978, p. 118).
The description provided by Jastrow is that commonly referred to in the literature as the “Big Crunch.” But the obvious question is this. After that, then what? Once again, hear Dr. Jastrow:
No one knows. Some astronomers say the Universe will never come out of this collapsed state. Others speculate that the Universe will rebound from the collapse in a new explosion, and experience a new moment of Creation. According to this view, our Universe will be melted down and remade in the caldron of the second Creation. It will become an entirely new world, in which no trace of the existing Universe remains....
This theory envisages a Cosmos that oscillates forever, passing through an infinite number of moments of creation in a never-ending cycle of birth, death and rebirth. It unites the scientific evidence for an explosive moment of creation with the concept of an eternal Universe. It also has the advantage of being able to answer the question: What preceded the explosion? (1978, pp. 119-120).
This, then, is the essence of the Oscillating Universe theory. Several questions arise, however. First, of what benefit would such events be? Second, is such a concept scientifically testable? Third, does current scientific evidence support such an idea?
Of what benefit would a Big Bang/Big Crunch/Big Bang scenario be? Theoretically, as I already have noted, the benefit to evolutionists is that they do not have to explain a Universe with an absolute beginning or an absolute ending. A cyclical Universe that infinitely expands and contracts is obviously much more acceptable than one that demands explanations for both its origin and destiny. Practically, there is no benefit that derives from such a scenario. The late astronomer from Cornell University, Carl Sagan, noted: “...[I]nformation from our universe would not trickle into that next one and, from our vantage point, such an oscillating cosmology is as definitive and depressing an end as the expansion that never stops” (1979, pp 13-14).
But is the Oscillating Universe model testable scientifically? Gribbin suggests that it is.
The key factors which determine the ultimate fate of the Universe are the amount of matter it contains and the rate at which it is expanding.... In simple terms, the Universe can only expand forever if it is exploding faster than the “escape velocity” from itself.... If the density of matter across the visible Universe we see today is sufficient to halt the expansion we can observe today, then the Universe has always been exploding at less than its own escape velocity, and must eventually be slowed down so much that the expansion is first halted and then converted into collapse. On the other hand, if the expansion we observe today is proceeding fast enough to escape from the gravitational clutches of the matter we observe today, then the Universe is and always was “open” and will expand forever (1981, p. 313).
Does the scientific evidence support the theory of an “oscillating,” eternal Universe? The success or failure of this theory depends, basically, on two things: (1) the amount of matter contained in the Universe, since there must be enough matter for gravity to “pull back” to cause the Big Crunch; and (2) the amount of gravity available to do the “pulling.” The amount of matter required by the theory is one reason why Gribbin admitted: “This, in a nutshell, is one of the biggest problems in cosmology today, the puzzle of the so-called missing mass” (1981, pp. 315-316). [Cosmologists, astrophysicists, and astronomers refer to the missing mass as “dark matter.” In their book, Wrinkles in Time, George Smoot and Keay Davidson remarked: “We are therefore forced to contemplate the fact that as much as 90 percent of the matter in the universe is both invisible and quite unknown—perhaps unknowable—to us…. Are such putative forms of matter the fantasies of desperate men and women, frantically seeking solutions to baffling problems? Or are they a legitimate sign that with the discovery of dark matter cosmology finds itself in a terra incognita beyond our immediate comprehension?” (1993, pp. 164,171).] In his June 25, 2001 Time article (which claims to “solve the biggest mystery in the cosmos”), Michael D. Lemonick dealt with this “puzzle.”
As the universe expands, the combined gravity from all the matter within it tends to slow that expansion, much as the earth’s gravity tries to pull a rising rocket back to the ground. If the pull is strong enough, the expansion will stop and reverse itself; if not, the cosmos will go on getting bigger, literally forever. Which is it? One way to find out is to weigh the cosmos—to add up all the stars and all the galaxies, calculate their gravity and compare that with the expansion rate of the universe. If the cosmos is moving at escape velocity, no Big Crunch.
Trouble is, nobody could figure out how much matter there actually was. The stars and galaxies were easy; you could see them. But it was noted as early as the 1930s that something lurked out there besides the glowing stars and gases that astronomers could see. Galaxies in clusters were orbiting one another too fast; they should, by rights, be flying off into space like untethered children flung from a fast-twirling merry-go-round. Individual galaxies were spinning about their centers too quickly too; they should long since have flown apart. The only possibility: some form of invisible dark matter was holding things together, and while you could infer the mass of dark matter in and around galaxies, nobody knew if it also filled the dark voids of space, where its effects would not be detectable (2001, 157:51)
In discussing the Oscillating Universe model, astronomers speak of a “closed” or an “open” Universe. If the Universe is closed, the Big Crunch could theoretically occur, and an oscillating Universe becomes a viable possibility. If the Universe is open, the expansion of the Universe will continue (a condition known as the Big Chill) and the Big Crunch will not occur, making an oscillating Universe impossible. Joseph Silk commented: “The balance of evidence does point to an open model of the universe...” (1980, p. 309, emp. added). Gribbin says: “The consensus among astronomers today is that the universe is open” (1981, p. 316, emp. added). Jastrow observed: “Thus, the facts indicate that the universe will expand forever....” (1978, p. 123, emp. added). Even more recent evidence seems to indicate that an oscillating Universe is a physical impossibility (see Chaisson, 1992). Evolutionary cosmologist John Wheeler drew the following conclusion based on the scientific evidence available at the time: “With gravitational collapse we come to the end of time. Never out of the equations of general relativity has one been able to find the slightest argument for a ‘re-expansion’ of a ‘cyclic universe’ or anything other than an end” (1977, p. 15). As Ross admitted: “Attempts...to use oscillation to avoid a theistic beginning for the universe all fail” (1991, p. 105). In an article written for the January 19, 1998 issue of U.S. News and World Report (“A Few Starry and Universal Truths”), Charles Petit stated:
For years, cosmologists have wondered if the universe is “closed” and will collapse to a big crunch, or “open,” with expansion forever in the cards. It now seems open—in spades. The evidence, while not ironclad, is plentiful. Neta Bahcall of Princeton University and her colleagues have found that the distribution of clusters of galaxies at the perceivable edge of the universe imply that the universe back then was lighter than often had been believed. There appears to be 20 percent as much mass as would be needed to stop the expansion and lead the universe to someday collapse again (124:58, emp. added).
Apparently, the information appearing in the June 25, 2001 Time article is “ironclad,” and has dealt the ultimate “death blow” to the idea of either an eternal or oscillating Universe. In speaking about the origin of the Universe, Lemonick explained:
That event—the literal birth of time and space some 15 billion years ago—has been understood, at least in its broadest outlines, since the 1960s. But in more than a third of a century, the best minds in astronomy have failed to solve the mystery of what happens at the other end of time. Will the galaxies continue to fly apart forever, their glow fading until the cosmos is cold and dark? Or will the expansion slow to a halt, reverse direction and send 10 octillion (10 trillion billion) stars crashing back together in a final, apocalyptic Big Crunch, the mirror image of the universe’s explosive birth? Despite decades of observations with the most powerful telescopes at their disposal, astronomers simply haven’t been able to decide (157:49).
But a series of remarkable discoveries announced in quick succession starting this spring has gone a long way toward settling the question once and for all. Scientists who were betting on a Big Crunch liked to quote the poet Robert Frost: “Some say the world will end in fire,/some say in ice./From what I’ve tasted of desire/ I hold with those who favor fire.” Those in the other camp preferred T.S. Eliot: “This is the way the world ends./Not with a bang but a whimper.” Now, using observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in New Mexico, the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, the mammoth Keck Telescope in Hawaii, and sensitive radio detectors in Antarctica, the verdict is in: T.S. Eliot wins (157:49-50).
What, exactly, has caused this current furor in astronomy? And why are T.S. Eliot and the astronomers who quote him the “winners”? As Lemonick went on to explain:
If these observations continue to hold up, astrophysicists can be pretty sure they have assembled the full parts list for the cosmos at last: 5% ordinary matter, 35% exotic dark matter and about 60% dark energy. They also have a pretty good idea of the universe’s future. All the matter put together doesn’t have enough gravity to stop the expansion; beyond that, the antigravity effect of dark energy is actually speeding up the expansion. And because the amount of dark energy will grow as space gets bigger, its effect will only increase (157:55).
The fact is, the Universe simply does not have enough matter, or enough gravity, for it to collapse back upon itself in a “Big Crunch.” It is not “oscillating.” It is not eternal. It had a beginning, and it will have an ending. As Jastrow observed: “About thirty years ago science solved the mystery of the birth and death of stars, and acquired new evidence that the Universe had a beginning.... Now both theory and observation pointed to an expanding Universe and a beginning in time” (1978, p. 105). Six pages later in God and the Astronomers, Jastrow concluded: “Now three lines of evidence—the motions of the galaxies, the laws of thermodynamics, the life story of the stars—pointed to one conclusion; all indicated that the Universe had a beginning” (p. 111).
In 1929, Sir James Jeans, writing in his classic book The Universe Around Us, observed: “All this makes it clear that the present matter of the universe cannot have existed forever.... In some way matter which had not previously existed, came, or was brought, into being” (1929, p. 316). Now, over seventy years later we have returned to the same conclusion. As Lemonick put it:
If the latest results do hold up, some of the most important questions in cosmology—how old the universe is, what it’s made of and how it will end—will have been answered, only about 70 years after they were first posed. By the time the final chapter of cosmic history is written—further in the future than our minds can grasp—humanity, and perhaps even biology, will long since have vanished (157:56).
The fact that Time magazine devoted an entire cover (and feature story to go with it) to the topics of “How the Universe Will End,” is an inadvertent admission to something that evolutionists have long tried to avoid—the fact that the Universe had a beginning, and will have an ending. When one hears Sir James Jeans allude to the fact that “in some way matter which had not previously existed, came, or was brought, into being,” the question that immediately comes to mind is: Who brought it into being?